The Tibetans of Pakistan
A cluster of 2 Tibetan groups in Pakistan.
Tibet flourished as an independent kingdom from the seventh century A.D. until the 1700's, when it came under nominal Chinese control. Tibet reasserted its independence in 1911. However, China again invaded in 1950 and fought to gain control of what was considered a strategic border area in Tibet. When Tibet officially became an autonomous region of China in 1965, thousands of Tibetans fled to India, following their religious leader, the Dalai Lama. However, many centuries before that time, the Burig and the Baltistani Bhotia had already been well established in Pakistan. They had their own Balti states, which were gradually absorbed into the British-Indian empire beginning in 1840.
What Are Their Lives Like?
Before 1947, trade and travel between the people of the Balti states and their Indian neighbors were constant. However, since the partition of Pakistan and India in 1947, Baltistan (and the Tibetans) have been more isolated.
The Tibetans live in the arid Karakoram Mountain region. Their communities are located between the international borders of western China and the northern section of the disputed Kashmir territories of India and Pakistan. The mountains are rugged and harsh, receiving only six inches of rain annually; therefore, the Tibetans depend heavily on glacial runoff to irrigate their crops. Barley, wheat, and millet are grown where water is sufficient. The hot summer temperatures also allow for a wide variety of fruits to be raised.
The Tibetans are not nomadic like the other ethnic groups in the area. Instead, they transfer their livestock from one grazing ground to another with the changing of seasons. During the summer months, they drive the herds to alpine pastures. All households have at least one female zmo, which is a cross between a cow and a yak. Dairy products are made from the milk of these animals.
The old tradition of an artisan class remains among the Tibetans. This class is made up of craftsmen such as blacksmiths and cabinetmakers. The artisans travel from village to village and are paid for their work with butter and wheat.
Tibetan communities are located in the fertile narrow valleys formed by the tributaries of the Indus River. Their villages consist of tightly clustered stone and mud houses that are connected by narrow passageways. A typical Tibetan house in Pakistan has three levels: a basement, a ground level with several rooms, and a flat roof, which makes a third level. At night the family's sheep, goats, and yaks are kept in the basement, or balti. This is the term after which the Balti were named. In the summer, the families do much of their work and other activities on the roof.
Until the 1900's, the Tibetans were semi-independent under local rulers. Today, they are under Pakistani administration, governed by a federally appointed district commissioner. There is very little crime in Baltistan.
The Tibetans in Pakistan wear traditional wool clothing. The men wear white woolen garments, while the women wear black wool. Both men and women wear skull caps decorated with flowers, berries, or leaves.
What Are Their Beliefs?
What Are Their Needs?
The disputed Kashmir region forms the southeastern border of Baltistan. Consequently, the whole region has been closed to foreign travelers for 14 years, which has prevented missions work among the Tibetans. Prayer is the key to seeing them reached with the Gospel.Prayer Points
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Bethany World Prayer Center
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