The Bedouin Arabs of Saudi Arabia
The traditional homeland of the Bedouin Arab is the Arabian Desert; some Bedouin groups, however, have migrated into northern Africa. Saudi Arabia was one of the first lands inhabited by the Bedouin, and today, nearly 700,000 still live there. The most well known of these groups are the Rwala and the Dhafir. Another unique group, found mainly in southern Arabia, is the cattle nomads, or the Baqqarah.
The Bedouin fall into two basic social classes. One class is known as the "true" Bedouin, and they live as nomadic shepherds. The other group has embraced farming and is known as the fellahin. The fellahin lead a more settled life on the edge of the desert. In contrast, the "true" Bedouin have been known for raiding any caravans that cross their paths while journeying across barren deserts. They move into the desert during the rainy winter seasons and back to the desert's edge during the summers. They usually speak Badawi (Bedouin Arabic).
What Are Their Lives Like?
The Bedouin Arab have a relatively harsh existence. The nomads have no permanent homes, but live in portable, black tents made from woven goat hair. The tents are divided by a decorative partition called gata. Half of the tent is for the women, children, cooking utensils, and storage. The other half contains a fireplace and is used for entertaining. The women do most of the work, while the men socialize and make plans for the group.
The material culture of the Bedouin is limited. Their tents are their main possessions, and animals are very important for their nomadic lifestyle. Camels are their main means of transportation, while sheep and goats are bought and sold.
Dairy products are the main food source for the Bedouin. Milk from camels and goats is made into yogurt and butter. Most of their meals consist of a bowl of milk, yogurt, or rice. Round loaves of unleavened bread are served when available. Dates, which can be found in desert oases, are eaten for dessert. Meat is only served on special occasions such as marriage feasts, ceremonial events, or when guests are present.
To endure the extreme heat of the desert, the Bedouin wear lightweight, light-colored clothing. It is very loose-fitting, allowing for the circulation of air.
Although the Bedouin once considered it degrading to have manual labor jobs, this has changed somewhat in recent years. Due to the need for better health conditions, more money, and better living conditions, some have accepted wage-paying jobs. However, most of them still despise this type of work.
What Are Their Beliefs?
Almost 100% of the Bedouin in Saudi Arabia are Sunni Muslims. Islam is based on the teachings of the prophet, Mohammed. The Koran ("holy book" of Islam) was supposedly given to Mohammed by the angel Gabriel.
Islam is a religion of works that is centered on five basic "pillars." (1) A Muslim must affirm that "there is no god but Allah, and Mohammed is his prophet." (2) Five times a day he must pray while facing Mecca. (3) He must give alms generously. (4) He must fast during Ramadan, the ninth month of the Muslim year. (5) He must try to make at least one pilgrimage to Mecca in his lifetime.
Islam has greatly influenced the lives of the Bedouin. For example, to preserve their people, the Bedouin are only allowed to marry those inside their own group. Also, the society is patrilineal, which means that inheritances are passed down through the males.
What Are Their Needs?
According to Islamic law, a Muslim who professes faith in Jesus Christ could be put to death. Perhaps this explains why there are only 70 known Bedouin believers in Saudi Arabia at the present time.
Evangelization efforts among the Bedouin are challenging due to the harsh and unsettled nature of their lifestyle. Missionaries able to endure the severe conditions of the Arabian Desert are needed.
- Pray against the spirit of Islam that has kept the Bedouin Arab bound for many generations.
- Ask the Lord to call people who are willing to reach out and share the love of Christ with them.
- Pray that God will raise up faithful intercessors who will stand in the gap for the Bedouin.
- Ask God to strengthen, encourage, and protect the 70 known Christian Bedouin living in Saudi Arabia.
- Pray that their traditional Muslim culture will soften, creating open doors for the Gospel to be preached among them.
- Ask the Holy Spirit to open the hearts of the Bedouin Arab towards Christians so that they will be receptive to the Gospel.
- Pray that God will reveal Himself to them through dreams and visions.
- Ask the Lord to raise up strong local churches among the Bedouin by the year 2000.
Latest estimates from the World Evangelization Research Center.
- People name: Bedouin Arab
- Country: Saudi Arabia
- Their language: Badawi
- Largest religion:
- Christians: <1%
- Church members: 70
- Scriptures in their own language: Bible
- Jesus Film in their own language: None
- Christian broadcasts in their own language: Available
- Mission agencies working among this people: 0
- Persons who have heard the Gospel: 153,500 (22%)
- Persons who have never heard the Gospel: 543,800 (78%)
- Country: Saudi Arabia
- Major peoples in size order:
- Major religions:
- Number of denominations: 9
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Bethany World Prayer Center
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