Prayer Profile
The Central Sama of the Philippines

[IMAGE] The 81,000 Central Sama of the Philippines live on several islands in the Sulu Archipelago, near the island of Borneo. Their language, Siasi Sama, is similar to Tausug and other Sama languages. In general, the term Sama refers to a diverse group of Sama-Bajau speaking peoples who are scattered from the central Philippines to the eastern shore of Borneo, and throughout the Indonesian islands.

The Sama originally inhabited the islands and coastal areas between the island of Mindanao and the Sulu Islands. Evidence suggests that they began to leave their homeland during the first millennium AD. Most moved south and westward, establishing themselves along the main Sulu Archipelago, the Cagayan Sulu Islands, and the eastern Borneo coast.

The Sama are a highly fragmented people with no overall political unity. Specific Sama groups can be distinguished by dialect. However, most identify themselves with a particular island or island cluster.

What Are Their Lives Like?
The lives of the Central Sama revolve around fishing, seafaring, and trade, with some farming along the coastal strips. Throughout much of Sulu and eastern Sabah, copra (the meat of the coconut from which coconut oil is derived) is the major cash crop. Copra holdings are small, and few families own enough palms to support themselves entirely from copra sales.

Trade has also long occupied a central place in Central Sama society. Since long ago, seafarers were valued as suppliers of trepang (sea cucumbers), dried fish, pearls, pearl shells, and other marine commodities.

Settlements, particularly those near the coastlines, are dense clusters of houses situated along well-protected stretches of shoreline. Houses, which are raised one to three meters above the ground or highest water mark, usually consist of a single rectangular room with an attached kitchen. Houses built over the water are connected by small bridges or planks.

Households are grouped in larger units called tumpuk, which means "clusters." The Central Sama live near their families and maintain close ties with their relatives. One household head is selected by the cluster members to act as the tumpuk spokesman. A parish consists of local groups whose members are affiliated with a single mosque. Sometimes, clusters and parishes are one and the same.

Among the Central Sama, both men and women share in agricultural labor and engage in trade. Fishing, building boats, and working with iron are primarily male occupations. Women generally weave mats and market pottery.

What Are Their Beliefs?
All Central Sama are Shafiite Sunni Muslims. Those who are well versed in religious matters, including the imams (religious leaders) and other mosque officials are called paki or pakil. The paki preside over all major rites, act as religious counselors, and conduct minor rites of thanksgiving.

Friday prayers are performed in the parish mosque and are the climax of a weekly cycle of daily prayers. An annual religious calendar includes Ramadan (the ninth month in which all Muslims fast) and the prophet Mohammed's birthday.

Some of the Central Sama are animists (believe that non-living objects have spirits). Spirits of the dead are thought to remain in the vicinity of their graves. These spirits require offerings for appeasement. Some graves have reportedly become the sources of miracle working power.

During the month of Shaaban, it is said that Allah permits the souls of the dead (roh) to return to this world. To honor their return, the people offer special prayers to the dead and clean the grave areas.

What Are Their Needs?
Since the early 1970's, the fight for independence has resulted in massive relocation of the islanders to other parts of the Philippines, Indonesia, and Malaysia. Muslim extremists are still very active and there have been numerous murders, kidnappings, and battles with the Philippine military forces. These fiercely independent people need to find their identity and future in Jesus in order to know peace.

Prayer Points
  • Ask the Lord of the harvest to send forth Christian laborers to work among the Central Sama of the Philippines.
  • Ask the Holy Spirit to grant wisdom and favor to the five missions agencies that are targeting the Central Sama.
  • Pray that God will reveal Himself to the Central Sama through dreams and visions.
  • Pray that God will give the few Central Sama believers boldness to share Christ with their own people.
  • Take authority over the spiritual powers that keep the Central Sama bound.
  • Ask God to raise up prayer teams who will begin breaking up the soil through intercession.
  • Pray that Christian radio broadcasts, evangelical literature, and the Jesus film will be made available to the Central Sama.
  • Ask the Lord to save key leaders in the Philippines who will boldly declare the Gospel.

See also the following related groups:
of Indonesia, the Bajau and Joloano Sulu;
of Malaysia, the Bisaya, Northern Sinama, Southern Sama, and Tausug;
of the Philippines, the Bajau, Bajau Kagayan, Kalagan, Magindanaw, Northern Sinama, Pangutaran Sama, Southern Sama, Tausug, and Yakan.

Latest estimates from the World Evangelization Research Center.


  • People name: Central Sama
  • Country: Philippines
  • Their language: Siasi Sama
  • Population: (1990) 72,900
    (1995) 81,100
    (2000) 89,500
  • Largest religion: Ethnic religionist 50%
    Muslim (Shafite) 49.9%
  • Christians: <1%
  • Church members: 8
  • Scriptures in their own language: New Testament
  • Jesus Film in their own language: None
  • Christian broadcasts in their own language: None
  • Mission agencies working among this people: 5
  • Persons who have heard the Gospel: 18,700 Those evangelized by local Christians: 16,300
    Those evangelized from the outside: 16,300 (20%)
  • Persons who have never heard the Gospel: 62,400 (76%)
  • Country: Philippines
  • Population: (1990) 60,779,000
    (1995) 67,581,300
    (2000) 74,575,400
  • Major peoples in size order: Tagalog 20.5%
    Visayan 19%
    Ilocano 11.1%
    Hilgaynon 9.3%
    Waray-Waray 4.6%
  • Major religions: Christian (all types) (92.2%)
    Muslim 6%
    Ethnic religionist 0.6%
  • Number of denominations: 151

© Copyright 1997
Bethany World Prayer Center

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