The Balkan Gypsies
A Cluster of 10 Balkan Gypsy groups living in 8 countries.
Gypsies call themselves Rom, which in their language means "men." Rom is derived from the Indian word Dom, meaning "a man of low caste who gains his livelihood by singing and dancing." The Romany language, therefore, comes from the name the Gypsies call themselves.
Gypsies originated in India and began spreading westward in the tenth century. By the fourteenth century, large Gypsy groups were established in the Balkan Mountains of Bulgaria. Some continued to live as nomads; others settled in permanent dwellings. However, regardless of where they lived, to non-gypsies, the Gypsies remained mysterious and distinct. Curiosity about them eventually led to hatred and discrimination. In the twentieth century, many Gypsies were killed by Nazis. Today, they are still discriminated against.
What Are Their Lives Like?
In the past, Gypsies were not allowed to own land, so they began developing their own occupations which they still do today. These included such things as fortune-telling, horse trading, entertaining, acrobatics, and metal and wood working. They are especially known for their musical abilities. Many sing and play instruments at weddings, baptisms, festivals, and on other occasions. Unfortunately, they are also known as beggars and thieves. Petty theft (usually by children), begging, and black market peddling sometimes provide families with income. This reputation has caused much discrimination against them. In Yugoslavia, for example, they are last in line, even behind Albanians and Turks, for jobs. Some of the women work as domestic helpers, but are paid very low wages and are given no health benefits.
Today, one of the main differences between the Balkan Gypsies and the Indian Gypsies is wage labor. Many Indian Gypsies work in factories or on cooperative farms. Others clean streets or railroads, become store managers, or work as gardeners. It is not uncommon for them to have between two and four sources of income because they are required to change occupations quite frequently. In the cities, the men do industrial and craft labor, while the women work as merchants or fortune-tellers. The men are also responsible to do most of the shopping while the women care for the children and tend to the housework. Among rural traveling Gypsies, the men care for the livestock.
Social control is very important among Gypsies. Values such as justice, fidelity, and morality are included in the Gypsy code of ethics. This strict social code is related to their old Hindu caste system which they have kept since their origin. The chief loyalty of a Gypsy is to his family. Extended family members usually live together, and those who live in separate homes often telephone or make daily visits to each other.
Marriages are sometimes arranged by the parents, and young couples usually marry while in their mid- to late-teens. Often, they prefer to elope rather than to have a wedding ceremony. But regardless of the type ceremony, purity before marriage is something of great value to them.
Although they may wear the same clothes, drive the same automobiles, and do the same work as non-Gypsies living in the area, their uniqueness of lifestyle clearly separates them from non-gypsies. For instance, it is the fascinating manner in which a Gypsy wears his clothes: as a costume or as a statement; the unusual ways he uses his automobile: as a home, a shop, or a shrine; the unique method in which he works: with great skill or eccentric style, that sets him apart. All of these things make Gypsies interesting, mystical, and sometimes misunderstood.
What Are Their Beliefs?
Many Gypsies have maintained their religious traditions and beliefs. They believe that ghosts, lizards, and snakes are capable of harming humans. Likewise, they believe that men have the power to curse others by giving them the "evil eye." They also believe that some men have the power to heal the sick.
What Are Their Needs?
© Copyright 1997
Bethany World Prayer Center
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