The Ryukyuan of Japan
Although their dialects are all quite similar to Japanese, the tribes are not able to understand one another. Some of the once dominant native languages spoken include Northern and Southern Amami-oshima, Toku-no-shima, Oki-no-erabu, Southern Ryukyuan, and Yayeyama. Unfortunately, all of these are gradually being replaced by Japanese among the younger Ryukyuans, who speak little or none of these native languages.
In times past, while under subjection to China and Japan, the Ryukyuans learned to be peaceful and accepting, while considered "backward" and "culturally less" by others.
What Are Their Lives Like?
The family is the center of Ryukyuan cultural life. It is not unusual to see entire families leaving together to tend the fields, where each one is responsible for his share of work. The people work hard and long, and have very little spare time. In general, the Ryukyuans do not like being alone. Any amount of free time they can afford is spent with their families or friends. The younger children often sleep together and older widows may have one of their grandchildren sleep with them.
Ryukyuan women are traditionally kept in subjection to their husbands. At celebrations, the men stay separated from the women, usually drinking sake (rice wine).
According to family tradition, a firstborn son has the greatest financial advantage. After marriage, the firstborn son and his wife live in his father's house until his parents have died. However, long before that time, he is responsible for managing the rest of the family and its finances. In times past, the fear of "dishonoring one's family" kept crime under control in the smaller communities.
Ryukyuan children enter school at eight or nine years of age and continue until they reach about sixteen. Today, there are three universities in the island region. Formerly, their goals included acquiring an abundance of livestock, food, and friends, and having as large a family as possible. Since the Japanese took control of the islands in 1879, these goals have changed. The Japanese introduced a system of education that discouraged students from speaking their native languages and encouraged them to speak Japanese. The students were even punished for speaking their own languages in class. Consequently, the native languages have been lost as the younger Ryukyuans have sought to identify with something they consider greater than themselves: a world class nation.
Progress through education and contact with the outside world has moved the Ryukyuans from a self-sufficient lifestyle to one of dependence on outside factors. These factors include selling cash crops, making money through tourism, and working for soldiers on U.S. military bases. Many Ryukyuans have moved to larger islands or other countries in search of jobs and better living conditions.
What Are Their Beliefs?
The people also believe that unseen powers known as kami control the ancestral spirits and other areas, including the sea and land. The ancestral spirits are honored on a community level, but the kami are worshipped privately in the homes. If the kami are not appeased, it is believed they can bring harm to a family or individual. The people must seek permission from the kami before making any type of decision.
The father of the house maintains the religious rituals in the home and cares for the ancestral tombs. The women serve as "mediators" between the kami and the people.
What Are Their Needs?
© Copyright 1997
Bethany World Prayer Center
This profile may be copied and distributed without obtaining permission
as long as it is not altered, bound, published
or used for profit purposes.